Friday, November 27, 2015

New Gladiolus Hybrids, 2015

People have been raising Gladiolus hybrids for hundreds of years, but they haven't tapped into the full diversity of the genus. Most of the Gladiolus hybrids you see in stores are based on the summer-growing Glads, and have ruffled flowers densely packed into a spike.

The winter-growing Glads I'm playing with are very different. They generally have flaring bell-shaped flowers evenly spaced on a wiry stem. They dance in the breeze. The flowers look delicate but are actually quite tough and easy to grow in a Mediterranean climate. They come in a huge variety of colors, many with spots and streaks on them. Some of them are also sweetly scented.

There are pluses and minuses to raising these hybrids. The minus is that many of the species are self-fertile, and it's too easy to get apparent crosses that are actually just a duplicate of the seed parent. On the plus side, the plants often grow to blooming size in only two years, rather than the 3-4 years needed for Moraea. And when the crosses do work, their colors are hypnotic. The best ones remind me of Alstroemeria, but the plants are better-adapted to my dry-summer climate.

Here are my recent favorites, Click on the links to learn more about them.

MM 11-03b.

MM 11-05c.

MM 11-14b.

MM 11-14d.

MM 11-21f.

MM 11-22c.

Other recent crosses:

MM 11-04. G. carinatus X G. tristis. Looks mostly like G. tristis.

MM 11-97. G. quadrangulus X G. trichomenifolius. A pleasant white flower with a yellow center and dark streaks.

You can read about some of the beautiful Gladiolus hybrids being created by other breeders on the Pacific Bulb Society's Gladiolus hybrids page here.

Gladiolus MM 11-97

Seed parent: Gladiolus quadrangulus
Pollen parent: Gladiolus trichomenifolius

MM 11-97a. This flower gets some yellow from the pollen parent, but has the regular shape and dark streaks of the seed parent.

Gladiolus MM 11-22

Seed parent: Gladiolus MM 00-00
Pollen parent: Gladiolus violaceo-lineatus

A magenta hybrid and a blue species. As I've seen in some similar crosses, this particular combination produces a lot of white flowers. Lots of colorful stripes and dots in these flowers, but unfortunately the flowers are all relatively narrow.

MM 11-21a. White with nice magenta lines and dots.

MM 11-22b. White with colorful streaks inside and out.


MM 11-22c. Dark purple spots all over the inside, but almost nothing on the outside.

Gladiolus MM 11-21

Seed parent: Gladiolus MM 00-00
Pollen parent: Gladiolus unknown

The tag on this cross faded, so I don't know what the pollen parent was.

MM 11-21a. Speckles all over the place.

MM 11-21b. This one has veins instead of spots.



MM 11-21c. Spots again, but fewer than selection a.


MM 11-21d. The colors in this one look a bit like hybrids I've made with Gladiolus tristis. Maybe G. tristis, or one of its hybrids, was the pollen parent?


MM 11-21e. This one looks like the seed parent.

MM 11-21f. Wow! This looks nothing like its siblings, but I adore the colors.

Gladiolus MM 11-14

Seed parent: Gladiolus MM 00-00a (G. gracilis X G. priorii)
Pollen parent: Gladiolus carinatus

A magenta hybrid crossed with a blue species. The result was very nice.

MM 11-14a. Has the magenta color of the seed parent, but with most of the throat white.

MM 11-14b. This one is purple, with very delicate stippling in the throat.

MM 11-14c. Looks a lot like the pollen parent.


MM 11-14d. Like form a, but in purple.


MM 11-14f. Very pale, with magenta veins.

MM 11-14g. A paler version of form b. Check out the faint hint of turquoise in the centerline of the outer tepals.

Gladiolus MM 11-03

Seed parent: Gladiolus violaceo-lineatus
Pollen parent: Gladiolus MM 00-00a (G. gracilis X G. priorii)

This cross continues my childishly naive pursuit of flower genetics. It's a cross between a pale blue species and a magenta hybrid that resulted from cross between red and blue species. Since the blue and red blended in MM 00-00a, I assumed that would continue to work in follow-on crosses. So these flowers should have been either blue or magenta. Instead...well, see for yourself.

MM 11-03a. This flower was chewed by a snail, which also ate the rest of the buds. But you can see it's a shade of purpley-magenta. That sort of fits my expectation.

MM 11-03b. Wait a minute, white? How the heck does crossing blue and magenta flowers produce white? Oh well, it's an absolutely beautiful little thing. It reminds me of an Alstroemeria.

MM 11-03c. Very tiny, plain, light purple.


Gladiolus MM 11-05

Seed parent: Gladiolus MM 00-00c (G. gracilis X G. priorii)
Pollen parent: Gladiolus MM 00-00a (G. gracilis X G. priorii)

This is an F2 hybrid of a cross between blue and red flowers. The parents are both magenta.

MM 11-05a. Looks a lot like a purple version of the parents. Another Alstroemeria-like flower.

MM 11-05b. Magenta but with a little bit of a picotee edge around the lower tepals.

MM 11-05c. Glowing hot pink. Not quite as bright in person as it appears in this photo, but it's still very nice. I like the slightly darker markings on the lower tepals.

MM 11-05d. Dusky magenta with some nice yellow in the throat. I have both of these flowers tagged as the same individual, but the different markings in the throat make me suspect that they are two different clones.


Gladiolus MM 11-04

Seed parent: Gladiolus carinatus
Pollen parent: Gladiolus tristis

G. carinatus is a beautiful blue tubular flower. G. tristis is fairly plain, cream-colored with a few dark markings. But it's very vigorous and has a flower stalk a couple of feet tall. Getting bright colors on G. tristis would be beautiful. So that's what I'm trying to do.

MM 11-04a. Pleasant, but not what I was shooting for. Maybe the F2 cross will be better.

Thursday, November 26, 2015

A Calochortus Hybrid

When I first started growing Calochortus, I put a lot of effort into hybridizing them. There's a huge amount of diversity in the genus, so I tried to cross dissimilar species (for example, crossing a globe tulip with a Mariposa). Nothing worked, and eventually I gave up.

Years later, I learned that the different sections of Calochortus are genetically incompatible. So I tried crossing some of the Mariposas with each other, and that finally paid off with two crosses.

Here are the parents of the two crosses that worked:

Calochortus luteus, a form that grows near San Jose, CA and doesn't have an eye spot:

And probably Calochortus superbus. I received this as C. vestae, but the gland shape is wrong. This particular specimen is a beautiful magenta color:


Cross the two, and here's what you get:

MM 11-123. Calochortus luteus X superbus. This one is 11-123a:

11-123b. Looks like C. luteus, but has an eye spot.

11-123c. Kind of a pale peach color.

MM 11-150a. Calochortus superbus X luteus. Looks very similar to 11-123c.


Thirteen Years Later: Amaryllis X Brunsvigia

In 2002, Bill the Bulb Baron kindly sent me a packet of anthers from Brunsvigia josephinae. I used the pollen to make a lot of crosses on Amaryllis "Multiflora" hybrids that I had received from breeding legend Les Hannibal. Some of the crosses set seeds, but to date everything that had bloomed looked just like typical Multiflora flowers.

Until this year:

 The bud emerges, September 16.

 Three days later, the bud is growing.

 The flowers opened a little bit later than most Amaryllis, and towered over them. (They also towered over a nearby Boston Terrier). October 2.


 The flowers were dark magenta.

My file number for this plant is MM 02-39a. The seed parent is a Les Hannibal selection I labeled MLH 09 (link).

I had been pretty sure this plant was a true hybrid, because its leaves are gray-green and broader than typical Amaryllis leaves. But it sure took a long time to come into bloom.

My experience with this cross is very similar to Martin Grantham's report on his Brunsvigia x Amaryllis hybrids in 2009 (link). His  flowers look very similar to mine.

I'd been hoping for red flowers instead of magenta, but the magenta appears to be standard for this cross. I tried to make some second-generation crosses on this plant, using pollen from B. marginata and B. litoralis, as well as some Amaryllis. None of the crosses set seeds, but one flower that I didn't pollinate set a single small white seed:


I presume this flower was self-pollinated. I planted the seed, pressing it into the surface of the soil in a seed cup. The seed has since developed some tiny red dots on it, meaning that there's at least some biological activity in it.

Come back in 2028 and, if we're all lucky, I'll tell you what its flower looks like.

Friday, November 20, 2015

Building Raised Beds for Bulbs

Updated July, 2017

With a huge amount of advice and encouragement from the folks on the Pacific Bulb Society mail list, I decided to start building raised beds for my bulb collection. This post documents what I did, and what I've learned so far.


Summary. I am building one to two beds per year. So far I have four beds that have bulbs in them, and two new ones under construction (summer 2017). It's too early to judge, but things look encouraging. I think the soil mix I chose is working well, the bulbs seem happy, and the window screening around the beds is reducing the inflow of weeds (although not quite as much as I had hoped). The bulbs seem to grow from seed to bulb at about the same rate as they do in pots, and they look a lot more healthy (I get a lot of leaf dieback in pots, but almost none in the beds).

A Gladiolus hybrid bloomed in bed #1 in the first year. It looks reasonably happy. This was a blooming-sized bulb that I transplanted into the bed.

The details and more photos are below. I am very open to questions and suggestions. Please don't hesitate to post something in the comment section at the bottom!


Why raised beds? My main motivation was saving time. I have about 900 pots, and I'm adding another 200 or so new Moraea and Gladiolus crosses every year, plus some new species when I can find them. Even if I limit myself to one pot per cross, setting up all of those pots, and finding space for them, is a huge chore (not to mention expensive). Also, the collection is now so big that I can't repot it every three years, and the bulbs dwindle if they don't get repotted on time. If I add more pots I'll just make the situation worse.

I was desperate to find a better way to grow the bulbs. Then I saw photos of Fadjar Marta's rain lily beds in Indonesia, and was inspired (link).

A single one of my raised beds has about the same soil area as 300 pots, so if I do one new bed a year I can raise all of the year's new crosses in it, and gradually move some species over as well.

I'm hoping that the beds will need replanting less often than pots. We'll see.


The structure. I'll describe the second year's bed, since I think it's slightly improved over the first year. The bed is rectangular, 24 feet long and four feet wide (that's about 8m x 1.3m). It sits directly on the ground. The sides are pressure-treated lumber, ten inches high (a 2x4 on top of a 2x6). Quarter-inch hardware cloth was nailed to the bottom, and I also added a layer of landscape fabric under that to keep bindweed from growing up into the bed (a problem with the first year's bed).

This is bed #1. The wooden frame is finished, and the hardware cloth has been attached to the bottom.

The sides of bed #1 are two 2x4s stacked vertically. I used galvanized mending plates to connect the boards together. As you may notice, I used both chicken wire and hardware cloth under the first bed. This was overkill. I started with chicken wire, then realized the holes in it were too large. I was too lazy to un-nail the chicken wire, so I added a layer of hardware cloth under it. No digging animal will be able to penetrate this fortress of wire.


The bed is enclosed in a rectangular frame five feet high (about 1.7m). The frame is made of rigid electrical conduit, bent 90 degrees at the top and screwed together at the center over the bed. Bending conduit is fun (seriously; I like this stuff).  I attached wooden strips to the top of the conduit. The whole thing turned out surprisingly rigid, and has withstood strong winter wind.

This is bed #2. In the first bed, I used fence posts to hold up the roof. In the second bed, I used rigid electrical conduit. The conduit was bent over at the top and screwed together. I then attached strips of wood above the conduit, secured with pipe straps.

Here's another view of the wooden frame on top of the conduit in bed #2. Bed #1 is in the background. The shade cloth has sagged in the last year.


There's a roof of shade cloth over the bed, and the sides are enclosed with vinyl window screening (you can buy it in big rolls that are five feet wide). The shade cloth and screen are stapled to the wooden frame at the top.

Here's bed #1 almost finished. I'm stapling shade cloth to the top of it.

Bed #2 is complete. The wooden frame at the top has shade cloth stapled to it, and I've also stapled vinyl window screen along the top.

In the first year's bed, I stapled the bottom of the window screen to free-standing strips of wood (2" x 1"). The weight of the wood holds the screen in place, and when I want to open up the sides of the bed, I just lift up the wood. The problem with this arrangement is that the staples gradually tear through the screen.

In bed #2, I screwed the wooden strips to the lower frame, and hold the window screen in place with binder clips that fit over the wooden strips. I also clip the screen to the conduit. The binder clips are easy to buy in a stationery store. Unfortunately, I have to use a lot of clips (every three feet or so), or they pop off in heavy wind and the screen blows all over the place.

Seams between sections of window screen are hand-sewn together with nylon thread. This is easier than it sounds.

So far, the screen has been enough to keep rats and squirrels out of the beds. It helps that we have two feral cats.


The soil. I agonized over this. Rocky Mountain gardening guru Bob Nold argued persuasively for pure sand and gravel, but I was too cowardly. So I settled on equal parts sand, pea gravel, and planting mix, delivered by a local supply company. I got a total of three cubic yards of soil (about three cubic meters), enough to fill the bed with half a yard or so left over for other uses.

That's a lot of soil. If you make a bed like this yourself, I recommend renting a Bobcat or other front loader to move the soil. I failed to do that, and had a very nice workout with my wheelbarrow one weekend. All weekend long.

The soil is supplemented with a fairly generous supply of complete fertilizer (about one tablespoon [15 ml] of fertilizer per 2 gallons [7.5 liters] of soil).

I used redwood bender board to divide the bed into rows eight inches wide. That allows for about 300 8" x 7" planting spaces per bed. I did not put bender board between the bulbs in each row. That means they will eventually spread and mingle, but since I'm dealing mostly with hybrids I don't really mind. For species, I alternate genera in a row so I can tell them apart when dormant.


Here's the interior of bed #1, showing the bender board that separates rows of bulbs. Cut sections of vinyl window blind are used as plant tags.

Since the window screening seems to be keeping rodents out, I have not bothered putting  plastic chicken wire over the soil. But that was my original plan.


The results. So far, so good. The plants seem happy, with much less leaf dieback than I see in pots. Blooming was prolific in the first two beds in winter 2016-7. Here's a shot of bed #1:


I had hoped that the window screen would keep weed seeds out of the beds, and so far that's a partial success. The number of weeds inside the beds is a lot lower than outside, but there are more weeds than I hoped. Tiny airborne seeds (like those from dandelions) seem to slip through the screen easily, and I bet they are falling through the shade cloth on the top as well. Larger seeds, like the sharp "stickers" from wild oats, poke partway through the screen and gradually work their way in. The screening has helped, but I have to do a lot more weeding than I wanted to.

The window screening helps to reduce weeds, but some seeds do blow through. This is the typical weed density in bed #1 (the one that has been in place for 18 months). If you look closely, you'll see at least a dozen definite weeds in this photo, plus some thready leaves that might be weeds or might be second-year bulb seedlings.

The worst densities of weeds are along the edges of the bed. 

Here's the typical density of weeds outside the beds. So the screening helps, but it's not perfect.

I am very happy with the gravel in the soil mix. I had worried that it would pin down the little bulb sprouts, but since the bed is only 1/3 gravel, the leaves seem to be able to work their way up through it. The value of the gravel is that it resists erosion. Rain tends to drip down through the shade cloth in a stream that could easily wash away the soil underneath, but the gravel resists that. It seems to do a very good job of keeping everything in place.

The soil level is gradually declining in the older beds, presumably because the organic part of the mix is breaking down. So far this hasn't bothered the bulbs, but I hear it is a common problem in raised beds, and I worry that I should do something about it. I am open to suggestions. My goal is to keep the beds going without re-digging for as long as I can. Any advice?